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COL (the Commonwealth of learning) is an organazation of the Commonwealth of Nations, which is located in Vancouver, Canada. It was founded in 1987 by Commonwealth Heads of Government. And its goal is to encourage and develop the use of open learning and distant education knowledge and resources throughout the Commonwealth's 53 countries.

COL helps nations to improve access to quality education and training. In addition it offers teachers' development, new approaches to high education and even learning for livelihood. COL also helps different countries to actualize their aconomy potential and improve it. And what enables doing this is the diplomatic and work relationships built between all of those countries.

The current President and Chief executive Officer of COL is Sir John Daniel. COL's partners include a proffesional group of education specialists, international agencies and banks. COL gets its financial support from the Commonwealth governments as well as from different companies and agencies aroung the world. It supports several online communities such as "WikiEducator" and promotes the virtual University for small states.

In conclusion, I would like to add that COL emphasizes different values such as : learning, partnership, world peace, equality and more. It sees the great importance of studying and sharing information, so it tries to offer various online opportunities to the Commonwealth nations.

Rosh Hashana (ראש השנה)

Rosh (=head) Hashana (=of the year)

Rosh Hashana is a Jewish Holiday, celebrating the head of the Juwish year. It is celebrated on the first and second days of the Jewish month - "Tishrey". It celebrates new beginings, new chances and renewed connection to earth and to god. The Juwish tradition says that on this holiday the Jewish people accept the god as the "king" of land.

There are several things done on Rosh Hashana that should be mantioned. First of all there is the candle lightning - the Jewish women light candles when the holiday comes and say a special blessing.

The days from Rosh Hashana to "Yom Kipur" (another Jewish holiday) are the days when god decides who is going to have a good and a productive year and who is going to be written in the "black book". So there is a saying people tell to each other on Rosh Hashana : "Be signed to have a good year".

Another way of celebrating Rosh Hashana is to have a special dinner the evning before the the holiday actually begins. One of the dishes eaten there, which has also become as one of the holiday's symbols, is an apple dipped on honey. The main reason it is usually eatten is in order to have "a sweet year", a year full of happiness and good thing. One more typical Rosh Hashana meal is a head of a fish or a lamb. It also symbolizes having a good year, in which we would always be "in the head", and have understanding and power over our own life.

Producing sound with the "Shophar" in the synagogue is another tradition done in Rosh Hashana". The Shophar is an animal's horn and its sound is supposed to "open the sky gates" to people's prayers.

Rosh Hashana is the fist holiday celebrated in the Jewish calendar, and its definitely means a lot for the Jewish people. SO it's a good chance to wish you all a happy holiday !


Yom Kippur (יום כיפור)

Yom Kippur (=Day of Atonement) is another Jewish holiday. In this day people get the chance to rethink their actions and go inside their souls. This is an opportunity to think about all the sins done by you or the bad behaviour you showed. Yom Kippur is actually the judgment day, the day when god is supposed to make some decisions about people (whether they need to be written in the "sin book" or in the "decent book"). It's a kind of a spiritual day, a day when people are supposed to confront themselves and judge what they have done throughout the past year. Yom Kippur is the time given to people in order for them to forgive and be forgiven.

Yom Kippur is mostly known by the 25 hour fast on this day, and that means not eating and nor drinking at all. The purpose of it is to pure the whole body and start a new beginning. Another thing not allowed to do in Yom Kippur is to do specific actions, such as : bathing, shaving, driving wearing, leather shoes etc. It all gives people the chance to disconnect from the everyday basics and totally feel the connection to earth and to god. Wearing white clothes is another thing done by Jewish people on this day, and again, its whole purpose is to feel mentally and spiritually clean and pure. Most of this holiday is spent in the synagogue, saying prayers and blowing the Shophar (by opening the sky gates to peoples prayers).

Yom Kippur is a very important day for the Jewish people. It may be said that this day decides their future and just gives people a chance to bring morality back.


Sukkot (סוכות)

Sukkot is the thirds Jewish holoday celebrated in the Jewish month - "Tishrey". We celevrate this holiday because of its historical significance : The Jewish people walking in the desert (in the bible period) were ordered to build themselves sukkot (=a kind of a temporary shelter)in which they would live. We celebrate this holiday for 7 days while being at the sukka.

A sukka is a small shelter, which walls are built from a cloth and which roof is actually some palm tree branches and leaves. The roof being not totally blocked is supposed to connect peole to nature and to the sky (and maybe even to god). The sukka is supposed to be as a normal place of living, and that includes eating ans even sleeping there. The sukka is usually decorated and set in a very cheerful way. Sukkot is a joyful holiday, time of happiness and friendship, so people who build a sukka are used to invite to their sukka some visitor - family and friends, which are called "Ushpizin". Another thing done is Sukkot is taking 4 kinds of plants and performing a certain ritual ("Arbaat Haminim" = the 4 kinds) :

  • The Lulav (from the palm tree)
  • The Etrog (a kind of a citrus fruit)
  • The Arave
  • The Hadas

Each of them symbolizes nature's gift, and each of them has its own special "characteristic". Some of them have no flavor, but have smell while others are the exact opposite. Some say that each kind symbolizes different kinds of people, with different kinds of behaviours. "The 4 Kinds" are used in the synagogue in a ceremony called "Hoshaanot" - saying prayes

Sukkot is a holiday which brings us back to the past, but still gives us a chance to really be happy and enjoy life.

4minim.jpg                   Sukka.jpg

Application for a job

                                            Sarah Cohen
                                            Hertzel 21/3, Tel-Aviv

Dear head of the conducting department, my name is Sarah Cohen and I'm willing to apply for a job as a lawyer. I heard about the available positions as lawyers at the Jerusalem high court of justice, and I'm interested to become part of your staff. I'm 25 years old and I live in Tel-Aviv, Israel. I graduated from High School at 18 years old and I got a very high score average in the Bagrut diploma. I have studied law in the Tel-Aviv University for 5 years and now I'm looking for a job. I've finished my studding there as an excellent student and I got my bachelor's degree. I can say that I have definitely experienced working in court while being an intern for a year in the Jerusalem high court of justice. I've also been through a psychology course in understanding people and their behaviors better (something essential when working as a lawyer). I'm ready to represent people in court and deliver all kinds of cases. I don't have any problem with speaking in public and I believe I have very good talking skills. I'm very serious about my abilities and about my destinations and goals. I believe that justice must be always done, and that's why I'm the right person for this job. Being a lawyer, as I believe, is something I see as my "mission" in life, and I'm definitely ready to become part of the people who make some order in the life we live in.

I would really appreciate if you'll consider my case and go through my diplomas and recommendations.

                                 Yours truly,
                                                   Sarah Cohen.

Gregorian and Jewish calendars

The purpose of the next piece of information is to discuss to main kinds of calendars used today: the Gregorian calendar and the Jewish calendar. The history as well as the calendar's characteristics will be mentioned and an evaluation will be made.

The Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar in current use in most parts of the world, both by the civil and Christian (church) calendar. The Gregorian calendar is probably the most used calendar in the world today. It was first proposed by the Calabrian doctor Aoysius Lilius, and was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it was named. The Gregorian calendar exchanged the old Julian calendar that was used till then. The main reason for changing the kind of the calendar used is because of the old one being not specific, incorrect and not easy to use.

The Georgian calendar is an arithmetical calendar. It counts days as the basic unit of time, dividing them into several groups: Seven day weeks, twelve months (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December) and years (of 365 or 366 days). This kind of calendar sets the beginning of the year on January the first and its end on last day of the December. A month's length can be from 28/29 days (for ex. -February) to 30/31 days (for ex. –October/ November). Every 4 years another day is added to the calendar, so there are 366 days instead of 365 days (this is also done to match the changes in the solar system).

In conclusion, I would like to add that there is a reason why the Georgian calendar is widely used today. It is a very exact calendar, allowing people to organize their lives in an effective way and decide on a time setting. It has definitely become an international kind of language, used and known by all.


The Jewish calendar

The Jewish calendar is a lunar calendar (it is based on the changes occurring to the moon during the whole year). This kind of calendar, which is used by Jews all over the world, was first published in the year 359 b.c. The months are based on the time that it takes the moon to travel around the earth. Each month consists 29 or 30 days. The lunar year has about 354 days in it, so some adjustments of the lunar year have to be made to match it to the solar year. The adjustment is done by inserting an extra month in the lunar calendar (seven times in nineteen years). Each day of the Jewish calendar is marked with a Hebrew letter: the beginning of the month starts with the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet - "Aleph" and so on. There are also 12 unique Hebrew months in the Jewish calendar: Tishrey, Heshvan, Kislev, Tevet, Shvat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Sivan, Tamuz, Av and Elul. The Jewish actually calendar organizes time by the Jewish tradition. It defines exactly when a certain holiday needs to be celebrated. Each holiday has its specific date, which can not be changed; therefore each Jewish holiday is celebrated at the same Hebrew date every single year. In addition, the years in the Jewish calendar are also marked with Hebrew letters. To conclude my point, the Jewish calendar is something very significant in the Jewish tradition. It guides Jewish people throughout the year and makes a connection between dates and Jewish holidays. It's important to mention that the Jewish people don't relay only on the Jewish calendar (the Georgian calendar is also in use).

(Comment.gif: Excellent work, Ilana. --nelliemuller 19:23, 12 November 2008 (UTC) )

A Fresh Start

The porpose of this composition is to explain some of the issues involved in the story "A Fresh Start".

The first issue that should be discussed is the drastic change happened in a 15 year old boy's life. Ryan, a dark skinned boy, was once a great student, a student standing in top of the class when speaking about grades. But it wasn't all perfect. He got expelled from school "for being rude, disruptive and unmanageable". The boy's life quietly went down the hill. He joined the criminal life and could easily get arrested. The questions that should be asked here is how could this situation possibly happen ? Why did the boy's school decide to deal with the him the way it did ? And who is to blame for the situation ?

Another, and main issue seen in the story is the reality T.V in which Ryan took part. This boy, a school drop-out, was sent to a boarding school. That was a high leveled school, with new and improved conditions and with many opened opportinities. The boy was sent there without even knowing it was all a reality T.V show called "A Second Chance". It is pretty obvious that the program's interests are about ratings and viewers' gratification. So on the one hand, why did a reality T.V show need to be involved in a boy's life who needed a sincere and professional help ? It wasn't fare to send the boy to a reality T.V show without him even knowing about this. In addition, it wasn't fare for the boy's own mother to send him away and getting paid for that. But on the other hand, this whole experience did change the boys life, it actually saved him from distroying it. He succeeded in the new school and really got a fresh start.

In conclusion, I can add that the boy in the story "A Fresh Start" desperately needed a chance. And he got one. Maybe the T.V show wasn't the best way to help the kid, but it did even more than that - he got his life back.

(Comment.gif: I enjoyed reading your work very much, Ilana. --nelliemuller 19:36, 12 November 2008 (UTC) )


The purpose of this composition is to compare 3 different cases of transformation made by 3 different people.(The information is based on three stories).

In the first story "A Fresh Start", the main character - Ryan, had a rough time. He had no father and he got no support from his mother. His economic situation wasn't good and he lived in a poor area. He began as a great student at school, was then expelled, and later found himself wandering on the streets and taking part in criminal acts. The boy desperately needed help. The thing that saved him and got him back on the right track was a reality T.V show. He was sent to a boarding school and there he gained his power back together with his new and changed life.

In the second story "Homeless To Harvard", the girl - Liz had even more complications in life. Her parents were drug addicts, she grew up in an appalling surrounding, her family had economic issues and the girl was always abused or neglected. Liz's life showed no positive signs. Her mother died and her father moved to a homeless shelter while she was sent to a children shelter. Liz didn't get help from anyone, she was the only one responsible for her life. She believed in herself and in her chances to succeed in life, and so she did.

The third story "The Hip-Hop Project" is a bit different. Here, the transformation and the changes were made to a group of kids. I am referring to kids who who needed help, kids who dropped out of school, and kids who has no place to live. The body which helped the kids in this case was a volunteer organization. This project shed some light over the kids' lives. It enabled them to record a song record together with few famous people. The project taught the children how to work together, how to market a product and how to communicate and "survive" in the real world. It showed them some life skills and proved that they can do it and succeed in life.

In conclusion, I would like to add that in all the stories, faith, hope and success are important values. Even when everything seems to be lost, something can always be done to improve the situation.

(Comment.gif: Excellent organization, Ilana. Please go over the differences between our editing. --nelliemuller 19:34, 12 November 2008 (UTC))

Conditional sentences

[Present] :

1. If I concentrate during the exam, I will succeed.

2. Unless I understand the questions on the exam, I won't get a good mark.

3. If you have visual or auditory memory, it will be easier for you to do the test.

4. If he uses his logic and his reasoning ability, he will do well on the exam.

5. Unless students have world knowledge, they will a have hard time when doing the test.

6. If you eat properly before the exam, you'll feel better when writing it.

7. If she gets a good sleep a day before the English exam, she'll be ready for it.

[Past] :

1. If she had concentrated on the exam, she would have gotten a better mark.

2. If he had understood the questions on the test, the teacher wouldn't have been so disappointed.

3. If the students had a better visual and auditory memory, they would have been more successful.

4. If you had used your reasoning ability a little bit better, the results would have been different.

5. If she had written down some of the world knowledge she had on this topic, the teacher would have been proud of her.

6. If the students had eaten free-sugar meals for at least a week before the exam, they would have done better on the test.

7. They would have gotten a higher mark on the English exam, if they had had a really good sleep the day before.

(Comment.gif: Excellent work, Ilana. You should be very proud of your accomplishiments. --nelliemuller 19:25, 12 November 2008 (UTC))

Writing to American students

(To: Lauren Donato) Hi's Israel speaking ! I must say the first thing I noticed is what you wrote was about Chemistry. I also study Chemistry...and moles..and calculating stuff :) (My major (or whatever it is called) is Biotechnology..)

So here is something about myself :

My name is Ilana Sahnovsky. I'm 16.5 years old and my birthday is January the 1st. I study in Ort Gutman High School and I'm in the 11th grade. I was born in Ukraine; my family and I settled in Israel (Netanya) when I was 2 years old.

I speak Hebrew, Russian (with a lot of mistakes) and English (I guess).

I have no brothers or sisters, and I have one cat (we also have fish, totally boring fish).

My best friend is Mila S. (she studies in the same class with me and she also takes part in this project). We have been friends for 12.5 years :).

I enjoy listening to music (all kinds), dancing, watching T.V, and riding the bicycle (which I learned doing few months ago...shame on me). And sometimes I even prefer doing nothing - just resting. I also enjoy hanging out with my friends. Recently I discovered another thing I enjoy doing – cooking (meanwhile, between my "creations" there are 2 pizzas, pancakes and spaghetti sauce).

That's it, I think…a typical teenager :).

Excellent writing --Warm wishes, Nellie Deutsch 13:03, 16 December 2008 (UTC)

(To: Alexis Giannoti) Hi Alexis, it's Israel speaking ! how are you ? I read what you wrote about yourself...and it's really cool you snowboard (I wish we had snow here in Israel, Netanya). It is also nice that you are a cheerleader (we don't have such things at our school...but if we had I guess I would attend join, too).

So here is something about myself :

My name is Ilana Sahnovsky. I'm 16.5 years old and my birthday is January the 1st. I study in Ort Gutman High School and I'm in the 11th grade. I was born in Ukraine; my family and I settled in Israel (Netanya) when I was 2 years old.

I speak Hebrew, Russian (with a lot of mistakes) and English (I guess).

I have no brothers or sisters, and I have one cat (we also have fish, totally boring fish).

My best friend is Mila S. (she studies in the same class with me and she also takes part in this project). We have been friends for 12.5 years :).

I enjoy listening to music, dancing, watching T.V, and riding the bicycle (which I learned doing few months ago...shame on me). And sometimes I even prefer doing nothing - just resting. I also enjoy hanging out with my friends. Recently I discovered another thing I enjoy doing – cooking (meanwhile, between my "creations" there are 2 pizzas, pancakes and spaghetti sauce).

That's it, I think…a typical teenager :).

(Comment.gif: Excellent writing, Ilana. You write like a native speaker. --Nellie Deutsch 18:25, 3 December 2008 (UTC))

Tsunami And Elephants

Tsunamis and elephants may seem to be two things which have no connection between them, but you'll be surprised to know there is one. The Tsunami is a destructive natural power. It all begins with a quake in the muddle of the ocean/the sea that causes the creation of a big wave. This wave is so dangerous that it is able to ruin enormous parts of land and living areas.

The Tsunami can bring the end to people as well as animals' lives in a short period of time. This phenomenon has been studied and researched for many years, and scientists still don't know enough about it. There are not enough tools and techniques that could prevent the great damage of the Tsunami or at least save the lives of many.

The world agreed to accept science as the most reliable source, but meanwhile not to take other facts seriously. There is a belief that elephants have a special sense that enables them to predict a Tsunami before it happens. Those big animals, which are mostly used to serve people, might also be "living alerts".

The vibration occurring before the big Tsunami wave builds up is felt by the elephants and gives them a signal to escape the area. If the elephants are used as warning signals in such cases, many lives can be saved and much pain can be prevented. That could be a very useful fact to surviving the Tsunami, but it isn't supported by all scientists. In conclusion, I would like to add that our world chooses to accept technology and science over nature, although it may cost us many lives later on.

(Comment.gif: I enjoyed reading your work, Ilana. --Warm wishes, Nellie Deutsch 20:17, 8 December 2008 (UTC))

Instructions: How to use the "WikiEducator"

- The first thing you need to know is to enter the WikiEducator site :

- Then you are able to read all kind of information that is on the website.

- If you want to be part of the people who put their own information on the site you fist need to sign up for the website.

- To sign up you need to click on the words : " log in/create an account" on the right side of the upper part of the screen.

- To create a new account you need to set yourself a user name and a password.

- When you have your own account you can open your own pages. You click your user name on the upper part of the screen. There you can edit new information by clicking the "Edit" button. When you finish writing the information you click on "Save Page".

- To edit pictures to your page you first need to uplode your file by clicking "Uplode file" at the toolbox. After you confirm the transformation, you go back to your page and click the on the button that says : "Embedded file". Instead of the "Example.jpg" you put the name of the file you uploaded.

- You can find all kinds of information in the site by writing a certain word in the "search" window and click "Go" afterwards.

Instructions: How to use the "Israel-U.S forum"

- You first need to enter the website :

- Then you click on the "High school" button at the left side of the screen.

- You'll then need to enter a user name and a password. The details of our class are : user name - HS885 and password : community.

- Then you choose from the list shown on the screen the link of the American and ours schools - "Mullen, Denver + Ort Gutman, Netanya".

- When you enter this page, you are able to enter different forums and share information with others. (To enter a forum you just click once on a certain link)

- If you want to answer someone's message, you can reply him/her by clicking on : "Reply" - on top of someones message. When you are ready to post your message you click on "Sumbit Post".

How to know a book without reading everyword in it

The best way to know a book is probably to read it all. But the question asked here is how someone can get to know a certain book without reading every single word in it.

So the first thing you can do is to use the internet. It offers people a lot of information about all kinds of subjects - which can also be books. People who had already read a certain book sometimes share what they read / learned. Reading that can help you understand better the book or close gapes you had while reading it. Another thing you can do is to ask a friend or anyone else, who had read the book, to tell you about it. Sometime people understand better when the information comes directly from somebody else. The last but not least idea, is to rent/download a "recorded book" (a soundtrack on a disc - a voice of a person reading the book for you). It's may be easier for some to do so, in the case that there is such a disc for a specific book. You are also able to watch a movie made by the book you're reading; it sometimes helps to illustrate the book in a very good way.

In conclusion, I would like to add that there are many ways to know a book withought reading every little detail and word in it. But again, if you don't read it all, how would you know?

About the English test

Today we got back our English test. I'm happy with my grade (100). It's the grade I expect to get in my future English tests. So I don't really have something else to say. (Comment.gif: That's great, Ilana, because you can do it. )

The war in Gaza

Hi Alexsis, how are you ? How did you enjoy your holidays ?

Well, as you might know or not, the situation here in Israel isn't so bright. About 10 days ago, Israel entered Gaza (an area in Israel where Palestinians live in). The Israeli army began an operation in Gaza as a response to the non stopping rockets launched at the territory of Israel. The Israeli government warned the terrorists in Gaza to stop sending the rockets to Israel - but it was useless. The rockets continued to fall in our territory, people were hurt, buildings were damaged and the situation was becoming tense.

The Israeli army is trying to spot the terrorists and destroy all the terror areas and weapons. Israel's main goal in its actions is to bring peace to Israel's territory and to Israeli residents. People who live in the south of Israel can't continue living under terror and not knowing what would happen to them the next day. Israel can't constantly talk to the Hamas (the terrorists' organization) and face a sealed wall. It was finally time to do something in order to stop the horror.

Schools and kindergartens in Israel which are placed 40 kilometers from Gaza are closed. People there are under rocket attacks all day long and damage seems to be unstoppable.

Unless the Hamas doesn't give up, nothing will be solved. Life in which you live in shelters and fear for a rocket to fall in your living room isn't o.k.

I hope everything will soon be over and that the Israeli troops will return home healthy and strong. What do you know about the war in Israel? What do you think about it?

(Comment.gif: Excellent writing, Ilana. The writing is well organized and full of information. You may send it to the forum. Thank you for sharing.--Nellie Deutsch 22:48, 5 January 2009 (UTC))

Angles Online

A big part of our everyday life is connected to computers and the internet. Yet, we have to face many risks and threats in the online world. We all need protection, because we don't know what is going to happen to us while being online. So that's why the "Cyber Angels" organization was found. Cyber Angels in an organization especially created to help victims of cyber-crime, and its goal is to ensure the safety of the innocent online users. About 4000 volunteers work at this organization, operating in 14 countries. Those volunteers work from home, and they visit chat rooms in order to track cyber-stalkers. This is an efficient way to expose cyber-crime and to help those people to cope with it. People intimidated by cyber stalkers shouldn't feel they're alone with these issues. (Comment.gif: So true, Ilana. --Nellie Deutsch 11:32, 18 February 2009 (UTC))

Hypnosis (summary of page 61 in the book)

Most people have a certain vision of the person called a "hypnotist", who performs a hypnosis on another person. Many probably believe that a hypnotist has some mysterious power allowing him to "do his magic" on somebody, and make that person obey his orders. But it was found that this idea is far from being true. According to the modern experts, a person on whom the hypnosis is being performed isn't a slave of the hypnotist. When someone is under hypnosis, he/she are conscious and aware of their actions. They can control their own minds, withought obeying each and every single thing told by the hypnotist. People willingly accept the hypnotist's suggestions, and make the whole situation seem real. The explanation of why normal people do as they are asked to is them being totally calm and relaxed. Under hypnosis, people put away all their social conflicts and shame and are ready to do different actions, even if they look silly. But still, because of the fact they are fully aware of what they are doing, they won't perform absurd things. In the bottom line, the hypnotist can't make people (his patients) do what they don't really want to do.

Pd hypnosis 070828 mn.jpg

Hypnosis (applications)

Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one person responds to suggestions given by another person (the hypnotist) involving changes in perception, memory, and actions( When using hypnosis, it is possible to create desired changes in the behavior and mental or physical aspects. This technique of approaching people is seen as an effective one, which is able to help people. First of all, hypnosis can be used as a psychological treatment for a variety of illnesses. It is possible to cure somebody physically by curing him/her mentally. This is performed by convincing someone's brain to release the pain and to make the person feel more comfortable in his/her own body. Hypnosis can also reduce someone's pain and help him/her overcome uncomfortable or painful clinic treatments. For example, if someone is sick with cancer, it is possible to help him/her cope with the physical pain. Mental disorders can also be treated and "fixed" by using hypnosis on a sick person. For example, if somebody is scared from stuff, and gets to a point he can't confront the outside world, it is possible to help him overcome his fears. It may allow the person to live a normal life, not being different from others. Another way hypnosis can help people, is by making them more calm and relaxed, and by that improving their life quality. Stress affects people's everyday performance, so that very stress people may find it difficult to get through the day. When people feel relaxed, they can function much better that way and have a better control of their lives. In addition, hypnosis can make one recall important stuff he or she witnessed in the past. Recalling events can help one overcome problems he or she has. It can be used in two cases. The first one is when a crime event is being investigated - it can be important for the police to get as much information as possible, and that's where the hypnosis comes in. Another case it's when people have some mental disorders which are caused by some events happened to them in the past. When using hypnosis, it is possible to get to the root of things and overcome those problems by acknowledging what has once happened. In conclusion, I would like to add that hypnosis seems to be a very effective way of helping people in different ways. And maybe because of the fact that it is something psychological, this technique is so successful.