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Welcome to the Organization Management and Development Page

Featuring Useful OD Resources, Readings & Strategies

Randy Fisher (aka Wikirandy)


Some indicators that are applicable to both female and male workers might be:

  • opportunities for advancement
  • feeling their role and/or work was respected
  • lack of mentoring
  • equality in payment for work of equal value
  • ability to take leave for family reasons
  • reasonable expectations with respect to time spent working (i.e. acceptance of the need for a work-life balance)
  • perceptions of bullying in the workplace
  • lack of action in relation to complaints about bullying or dishonesty e.g.
  • flexible hours to allow for child care
  • no child care close to work place
  • sexual harassment
  • Other: Explain: _________________

Unobtrusive Measures

Absolutely! We in museum and cultural evaluation have long-employed them. In fact, some of us AEAers who are also Visitor Studies Association (VSA) members did a demo at last years AEA conference in San Antonio using tracking and timing to evaluate the reception/poster session. I'm usually one to recommend it's one method in a multi-method design though; not the lone data source. (PS: More visitor studies will be profiled at this year's conference, if you're planning to attend.)


Malcolm Baldridge Internal Quality Award

Outcomes Mapping

  • See post - Justifying OM for Sceptics (sic)
  • "How do we get the backing to implement these bottom up approaches i.e. OM, participative techniques etc.? Explaining the process of OM and how each stage serves a purpose, is okay for people who are going to apply OM, but takes too long for most decision makers! "
  • application and integration of (participatory) action research

Logical Framework Analysis

The concept of the Logical Framework stems from Operational Research during WW2 and was developed by RAND co-operation, with the following definition: "...the mathematical or logical framework or set of equations showing the interdependencies of the objectives, the techniques and instrumentalities, the environment, and the resources." (see P. Checkland, Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, page 136).

This concept was in the 60's further developed into the Logical Framework Matrix, by Leon Rosenberg, the founder of Practical Concepts inc, who was hired by USAID to improve their planning system.

Now, the big jump ahead was made in 1974, when Ludwig Zils and Peter Siebenhuhner from GTZ teamed up with Moises Thompson from Practical Concepts inc. and designed together a procedure that allowed stakeholders to build plans parting from an interactive problem analysis and negotiate a workable solution, which found its form in the logical framework matrix. They integrated Metaplan communication techniques to build a consistent facilitation procedure. Thus, for the first time, a stakeholder based interactive planning system was devised, of which the Logical Framework was the end product. This method was called ZOPP in German, or Goal Oriented Project Planning (GOPP) in English. Later, other names such as Logical Framework Analysis or Logical Framework Approach appeared, adding to the confusion. But Harry is right that GOPP was the first planning system that allowed stakeholders to make their own plan together, and this was indeed a 'revolution', because until that moment plans could only be made by 'experts'. This is why it was seen by some optimists as a step towards the democratisation of development planning.

Well, this did not happen at all, as we all know, because you may have a nice interactive planning tool, but if the way the project cycle is being managed by aid agencies (or any other policy agent) is as vertical as ever, participation remains window dressing. In fact, recently in a discussion list of LFA moderators we made an inventory of all the complaints about the Logical Framework, and it appeared that most of them related to the way the Project Cycle is managed by aid agencies, not the planning tool as such. However, no tool is perfect, and in the course of time practioners continue to develop it further, like removing jargon like 'results' and 'purpose' is being replaced with more practical terms like 'services' and 'benefits', and elements from other interactive methods (including OM) are integrated. - Charles

Programs of Study

Articles, Resources

Community-Based Evaluation (CDC)

CDC's Building Our Understanding: Key Concepts of Evaluation

Community-Based Project Evaluation Guide ]

Guides, Toolkits

8 Evaluation Portal


Public Health




  • American Journal of Evaluation
  • Journal of Mixed Methods Research
  • Sociological Methods & Research
  • Sociological Methodology

Other 2

Here are some great resources - and discussions! - on preparing an RFP:



Surveys & Questionnaires



Impact Analysis (quantitative)

  • General Elimination Methodology (GEM) approach to evaluating impacts of a particular international aid intervention in 20+ countries. The model is explained in: Scriven, M. (2008)*. *A summative evaluation of RCT methodology: & an lternative approach to causal research.* Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation*, *5* (9), 11-24.
  • Realist evaluation: an emerging theory in support of practice", 1998. Henry, Julnes & Mark (eds), Jossey-Bass.

Stakeholder Analysis

Alexander, I. F. (2005). A Taxonomy of Stakeholders: Human Roles in System Development. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 1(1), 23-59.

Brugha, R., & Varvasovszky, Z. (2000). Stakeholder analysis: a review. Health Policy and Planning, 15(3), 239-246.

Nowell, B. (2009). Profiling Capacity for Coordination and Systems Change: The Relative Contribution of Stakeholder Relationships in Interorganizational Collaboratives. American Journal of Community Psychology, 44, 196-212

Williams, Bob. Systems Concepts in Action : A Practitioner's Toolkit Kindle and Adobe Digital Edition versions available

Williams, Bob. Making evaluations matter: A practical guide for evaluators

Williams, Bob -

(Comment.gif: Stakeholders vs. Stakes (Bob Williams) - Not only do the same set of stakeholders contain different stakes, different stakeholders groupings will share the same stakes. That latter idea has been the basis of conflict resolution and mediation processes for years. Indeed we all have different stakes in a single endeavour whatever our stakeholder role or position. I believe that understanding how people juggle the contradictions in their own stakes (e.g. employability vs quality) is at the core of program behaviour. In contrast, identifying stakeholders tells you less than half the story - and may indeed lead you up the wrong path.)

  • Making sense of what "objective data" means via our own values, beliefs, experiences and motivational (and cultural) drivers. Indeed this post is based on the fact that I am interpreting, making meaning, of your “objective” story in a different way to you.