Inclusive Education

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Inclusive Education

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After reading the material and undergoing training you will be able to

  1. appreciate the needs of disabled children in a classroom
  2. List the types of disabilities and the matching curriculum adaptation.
  3. Device mechanisms in the training programmes to enable the teachers fit into the role.
  4. Develop proper perspective with regard to disabled children & internalise this focus in all activities they undertake.

What is it all about?

Since independence, year after year the goal of UEE is set, but never achieved so far. One doesn’t realise that millions of children in this world are victims of genetic disorders. This “disorder” often puts the victims into a very disadvantageous position, not merely because of the “disorder” but due to lack of proper understanding by the others/all. Education for all, means, the system should bring all the category of the children in the age group of 6-14 years into the school fold. No one can be denied. In this context, efforts are being made to integrate children with the “disorders” into the school system and facilitate learning by making curriculum adaptation.

This “facilitation” calls for a systematic planning with regard to children teachers, teaching learning material, classroom management and material management, starting from classroom to state level. The training institute (DIET) at the district level plays a prominent role in promoting elementary education in terms of quantity, quality and equity.

Pl check the following links for more discussion on the issue.


Type and levels of Disabilities

The disabilities can be broadly classified into the following categories. These categories can be further classified on the basis of level of problems and type of problem.

(i) Visual Impairment

(a) Refractive errors-short sight or long sight.

(b) Partial vision or low vision. who have difficulty in reading print even after wearing spectacles.

(c) Totally blind.

(ii) Hearing Disabilities

(a) Slight hearing loss - (26-40db) decibels.

(b) Mild hearing loss - (41-55 db) decibels.

(c) Moderate hearing loss (56-70 db) decibels

(d) Severe hearing loss (71-90 db) decibels

(e) Profound hearing loss (91db or more) - Hearing aid does not help

(iii) Mentally Retarded

(a) Slow learners - (I Q 75 to 89 IQ)

(b) Mild mentally retarded (IQ 60-65 to 70-75 IQ)

(c) Moderate Mentally Retarded. (IQ 35-40 to 60-65 IQ)

(d) Severely retarded (IQ 20-25 to 30-35 IQ)

(e) Profoundly retarded (IQ 20-25 and below)

(a) Slow learners - (IQ 75 to 89 IQ)

(b) Mild mentally retarded (IQ 60-65 to 70-75 IQ)

(c) Moderate mentally retarded (IQ 35-40 to 60-65 IQ)

(d) Severely retarded (IQ 20-25 to 30-35 IQ)

(e) Profoundly retarded (IQ 20-25 and below)

(iv) Physically Handicapped or Orthopedic Handicap

(a) Polio of hands or legs (Upper or lower limbs)

(b) Central nervous system disorder (cerebral palsy, Epilepsy)

(c) Congenital malformations of limbs (e.g. Spinal bifida, or Club foot, or bow legs)

(d) Diseases of the muscular skeletal system.

(e) Muscular dystrophy or wastage of muscles in arms or legs.

(f) Rigidity of joints - due to Rheumatoid arthritis.

(v) Learning Disabilities

(a) Reading disabilities (dyslexia)

(b) Disability to comprehend or speak - Dysphasia

(c) Writing disabilities - Dysgraphia

(d) Arithmetic disabilities (dyscalculia)

(e) Disability to express orally - aphasia

(f) Disability to read or write printed matter - Alexia

(vi) Speech Disabilities

(a) Stammering - Difficulty in pronouncing certain Sounds.

(b) Stuttering - Fluency in speech lacking

(c) Voice Disorders - Cannot control pitch, loudness

(d) Articulations - Problems, Omissions, and Substitution of words.

(vii) Chronic Health Problems

(a) Congenital heart problems - viz Mitral stenosis

(b) Chronic bronchitis and asthma

(c) Juvenile diabetes

(d) Tuberculosis

(viii) Emotional Disturbance leading to Behavior Problems

(a) Attention deficit disorder (hyper activity)

(b) Aggressive/Violent behavior

(c) Hyper active - or Hypoactive

(d) Anxiety disorder

(e) Shy and withdrawal tendencies

(f) Depression

(g) Conduct disorders

(h) Obsessive-compulsive disorder

(i) Phobia-fear of darkness, heights or depths.

(j) Psychosis.

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Activity 1.

  1. why do we need to Integrate special need children in regular schools?
  2. Which are the degrees of disability need to be integrated?

Eg: can we integrate mild, moderate or severe?

Identification of children with disabilities

Hearing Impaired a) Identification Checklist

b) Audiometric Test

c) E.N.T. surgeon

Visual Impaired a) Identification Checklist

b) Shellen Chart

c) Ophthalmologist for refractive errors and correction.

Mentally Retarded

Learning Disabled

a) Identification Checklist

b) Progress in school

c) I.Q. Test administered by a clinical Psychologist

d) Developmental Pediatrician and neurophysician

Speech problems a) ENT Surgeon

b) Speech pathologist/Therapist

c) Audiologist

Health Problems a) Physician

b) Chest Physician

c) Pediatrician

Emotional Problems Psychologist/Child psychiatrist
Physicall or Orthopedic Problems a) Orthopedic Surgeon

b) Physiotherapist

c) Neuro Surgeon

d) Neurologist

Special needs of children with disabilities

Disability Medical Need Educational Social
1. V.I.

(as per degree of Visual Impairment)

- Surgery

- Correct

- Glasses or corrective

- Seating arrangement

- Vitamin supplements

- Medication etc.

- Big print

- Proper lighting

- Use of lens

- Cassettes, tapes (recorded)

- Braille

- Abacus

- Adaptations in teaching

- Use of Scribe

Participation in all school activities
Total Blind Consult ophthalmologist for a advice Orientation and mobility or cane training
2. Physically Handicapped - Consult orthopedic surgeon for corrective appliances for mobility

- Physiotherapy

- Neurologist for neurological problem

- Auditory aids,

- Seating arrangements,

- Prevention of barriers adapted

Participation in all social activities
3. Learning disability Consultant psychologist and neurologist Special or remedial reading, writing Participation in all social activities
4. Mentally Retarded or Intellectually impaired Psychologist and special education - Special teaching technique.

- Individualized educational planning

- Seating arrangement

Participation in all social activities

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Activity 2.

  1. List the needs of any two types of CWSN.
  2. Discuss the process of meeting their needs in a regular class room at middle school level

What is Special Education in relation to I.E.D. and Inclusive Education?

  1. Special Education is modification of school or educational services to meet the special needs of Disabled children.
  2. Disabled children deviate from the normal either socially, intellectually or physically due to their handicap. Therefore, it is a special Educational arrangement in teaching to meet their deficiency in Academic work, Communication, Social and mobility skills.
  3. I.E.D. is extending equal opportunities for Education to Disabled children, which are appropriate to their special needs, in a least restrictive environment, along with other children, in a regular school, so that they grow and develop like the other children. It needs the supportive services or a Resource Teacher.
  4. Inclusive Education views disabled children as a part of the whole school system, right from enrolment. They are there in their respective community. It is a strategy to develop teaching and a methodology of teaching, using special Instructional material to reach all children, and not particularly any group. It provides options in such a way where all children can learn viz. teaching is planned and presented in such a way to reach all.

Note: Major care should be taken to see that

  1. Children do not move down wards in the cascade
  2. Children are sustained at level 7 and 6
  3. Children move upwards in the cascade
  4. Move from level 1 upwards-one at a time, as soon as possible.

Strategies of meeting the special needs of children with disabilities

The following strategies are useful in meeting the special needs of children with disabilities.

(a) Reducing the deviation

This can be achieved in two ways - reducing the defect/disability and reducing the visibility of the defects.

(b) Reducing the disability

This is possible through the following strategies.

(i.) Practice - copy writing, speech training, remedial instruction etc.

(ii) Substitute learning-use of left hand if right hand becomes deformed. Lip reading if unable to develop speech, braile learning, type writing, if unable to write by hand etc. (Devices which help in improving functioning)

(iii.) Functional prosthetics – magnifying glasses for the children with partial sight, hearing aid calculators, if unable to compute, braile type writer, alphabetic chart for those who forget the shapes of the letters etc.

(c) Reducing the visibility of the defect:

This is helpful in developing positive attitude towards the children with physical defect. The visibility of the defect can be reduced through the following strategies.

Use of the cosmetic prosthetics; Use of articifial limbs which are not functional, wearing black glasses by blind person, transparent hearing aid. Etc. Compensatory learning; proper body posture control learning appropriate soial manners etc.

(d) Changing the environment: Manipulation of the environment is also very much essential in meeting the special needs of children with disability. this involves

  1. Alteration of physical environment, and,
  2. Alteration of the social environment.
  3. Alteration of the physical environment has two important objectives
    1. Improving responses-Removing architectural barrier so that mobility is eased, adaptation in the house hold articles so that day to day activities can be carried out without much difficulty, adaptations in the communication devices. like videophone for the deaf, talking machine for the blind etc.
    2. Improving stimulus large print book for the partially sighted, proper placement in the class for the deaf avoiding distraction for a child with concentration problems etc.
  4. Alteration of the social environment - through parental guidance and Counselling Orientation to the peers, public awareness programmes teacher training programmes.

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  1. What is the orientation that all teachers would require in an inclusive school?
  2. How can learning material cater to the needs of the child?

Role of teachers in meeting the special needs of children disabilities in the inclusive schools

The role of teachers in meeting the special needs of children with disabiliti s vary from one disability to other. How ever there are certain common roles. They are listed below.

  1. Identification of the children with disabilities in the classroom.
  2. Referring the identified to the experts for further examination and treatment.
  3. Accepting the children with disabilities.
  4. Developing positive attitude between normal children and disabled children.
  5. Placing the children in the classroom in proper places so that they feel comfortable and are benefited by the classroom interaction.
  6. Enabling the children with disabilities to avail the facilities provided for them under IED scheme.
  7. Removing architectural barriers wherever possible so that children with disabilities move independently.
  8. Involving the children with disabilities in almost all the activities of the classroom.
  9. Making suitable adaptation in the curriculum transaction so that the children with disabilities learn according to their ability.
  10. Preparation of teaching aids/adaptation of teaching aids which will help the children with disabilities learn.
  11. Parental guidance and Counselling and public awareness programme through school activities.
  12. Acquiring competencies which are essential in meeting the needs of the children with disabilities.
  13. Cooperating with resource teachers if resource rooms are available.
  14. Collaborating with medical and physiological personnel social workers, parents and special teachers.
  15. Providing scope for cooperative learning among disabled and normal children.
  16. Conducting case studies and action research related to the specific problem of children with special needs.
  17. Construction of achievement and diagnostic tool.
  18. Adaptation in evaluation for children with special needs.
  19. Nurturing the talent among children with disabilities.
  20. Providing remedial instruction to the children who require it.

The teachers can perform the above roles only when essential competencies are developed among them. This calls for intensive training of the teachers with adequate practical component.

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  1. Special Education, is the education provided to children with certain disabilities.
  2. To provide suitable education, usually disabled children are enrolled in special schools but efforts are made to integrate children with moderate disabilities into normal schools.
  3. In normal schools, where education of the disabled children is integrated, the teachers role is of great importance.
  4. The teacher has to identify the disability and make appropriate curriculum adaptation in the classroom, provide extra gadgets as per the requirement of the children.
  5. Different types of disability are
    1. Visual
    2. Hearing
  6. Physical
  7. Emotional
  8. Mentally Retarded
    1. Children with Health problem
  9. Learning disability

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  1. Visit a special school & a CWSN school to know how the school is organised
  2. Identify the resource support DIET can provide in IED
  3. See the Hindi films “Black” and “Taare Zameen Par”

Useful Web links

Inclussive Education[1]

UNESCO on Inclussive Education[2]

Inclussive Classroom[3]

Respond Effectively to Inclussion[4]

Useful Videos

Following videos would help you in:

  • how to go about with autistic children[5]
  • Using Play Boxes[6]}}