Community Media/ECONEWS/Radio Mang'elete OD Curriculum

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Organization Capacity Development Curriculum: Mang’elete Community Radio

1.0 Goals and Objectives

GOAL: The main aim of the Organizational Capacity Development Curriculum is to strengthen governance and management of community radio and its founding institutions, so as to run radio as a successful social enterprise that supports the mission of development.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the Organizational Capacity Development Curriculum are:

  1. To provide a conceptual framework for ownership, governance and management of the community radio.
  2. To enable the community media practitioners to understand the history, objects, and procedures of community radio.
  3. To provide information on the meaning and models of community communication constitutions, the procedures and processes of community organizational development, and popular participation in these processes.
  4. To provide a practical understanding of the ideal organizational structure for community radio, key policies and guidelines complete with the necessary skills and competencies
  5. To enable community media practitioners to understand their functions, roles and responsibilities and discharge them without fear or favour, in order to make community radio more effective.
  6. To provide community media practitioners with leadership and management information that will enable them to establish a foundation for appreciating, nurturing and implementing the ideals and practices of democracy and good internal governance.
  7. To enable community media practitioners to appreciate the impact of organizational culture, relationship and learning on their day to day lives, hence the importance of their participation in contributing to these processes.
  8. To empower the community media practitioners to contribute to the progressive evolution, development and reform of the community radio sector through strategic planning, team building and conflict management.
  9. To highlight the function of a community radio as a vehicle for community learning, expression and news.

Day 1

Participants: 66 members in attendance. These are two members from each of the 33 self- help women groups which form the Umbrella Group-Mang’elete Community Integrated Development Programme (MCIDP)

Introductory session

Participants introduce themselves: Name, group/organization, locality and responsibility in the group.

Workshop Ground Rules: Participants express common rules and responsibilities during the workshops such as: Time-keeping; Respect to the opinion of others; Saying openly and honestly ones opinions and ideas; Avoiding repetition; Mobiles off etc. Rules and responsibilities written on the blackboard. Appointment of the community members to enforce the rules i.e. the Time Keeper and Welfare Officer.

Expectations: Each participant jots down own expectation/s of the workshop on a sheet of paper. The expectations are then read aloud and written on the flip charts. The Flip Charts are then stuck on the walls for reference during the course of the workshop. They will be revisited at the close of the workshop to find out whether they have been fulfilled.

Short solidarity statements: By area leaders and the community radio stakeholders: Member of Parliament (MP), District Officer (DO), District Development Officer (DDO) and the Civil Society Organizations (CSO’s) partnering with the community radio. This is meant to reinforce the idea of community ownership, responsibility and interest in the community radio.

First session

Group Dynamics: Elaboration on Shakespeare’s statement: “All world is a stage.” This means everyone assumes a certain role in life. In group situations, each member plays a certain role and the issue is not the role one plays, but whether one is playing the right role.

  • Emergent tasks/roles:

Initiator – The idealist. Defines problems, contributes ideas/suggestions, proposes solutions Information seekers – Clarifies, promotes group participation, seeks facts and evidence Orienteer – Guides and keeps group on track and guides discussions Energizer – The Mobilizer. Rekindles strength among members Secretary – Keeps track of progress. Coordinates group and reminds them of previous actions

  • Maintenance roles:

Encourager – Provides support, acceptance and appreciation for others efforts. Boosts morale of the group. Harmonizer – Resolves conflicts and reduces tensions Comedian – Provides humour, relaxes others Gatekeeper – Controls communication channels and seeks equal participation of others Follower – Accepts ideas of others, goes along with the rest

  • Self-centred roles:

Blocker – Interferes with the progress of the group by providing negative responses and counters every proposal Aggressor – Attacks other members to promote own status and ideas. If individual expectations are met, he sticks and if not he deserts. Dominator – Monopolizes discussions with long and irrelevantmonologues Deserter – Difficult to pay attention to discussions. Engages in irrelevant conversations, day dreaming and always whispering to other people. Special interest Pleader – Provides irrelevant information, argues incessantly for own point of view even when unpopular.

Reflection/discussion with neighbour: What role is your personal preference? Does your role fit the needs of the group or your personal preferences? Does it interact smoothly with the roles being played by other members?

Second session

History and Developments of the umbrella group – Mang’elete Community Integrated Development Programme (MCIDP) Group work: Participants break into three groups to discuss the following questions: Gains and Challenges of the group at each stage of development; Current state of the group; Roles and actors at each stage of the group development.

Report back from the three groups followed by plenary discussions and a harmonisation on a flip chart key historical highlights and developments of MCIDP.

Last session

Video shows of past activities at the community radio

Day 2

First Session

Recap: Individual volunteers highlight ideas and lessons from yesterday Input by facilitator: Question and answer session from yesterday ideas and lessons

Second session

Leadership and management - Plenary questions and discussions: What is leadership? Who is a leader? Qualities of a good leader? Has there been leadership in the project? How was it vis a vis the qualities highlighted above? Which were the shortcomings and strengths of this leadership? Any areas for improvement?

Decision making – Individual and several group leaders volunteer to narrate their understanding and experiences on decision making. Question and answer session: Identifying the problem; Problem analysis tools; Steps in the creation of solutions and alternatives; Negotiation mechanisms and strategies.

Management - Presented through an analogy of the bee structure and colony; plenary presentations of individual experiences on personal management; and presentations from some officials of women groups’ merry- go- round management strategies.

Plenary discussions on the roles of management; the importance of management; differences between boards and management; planning, development of policy and human resources management; rules and regulations of management

Teams and Team Building: Plenary discussions. Indentifying groups and teams; differences between team leadership and team management; purpose of teams; effective teams and steps for empowering teams.

Leadership and conflict management: Plenary discussions. Types of conflicts; Sources of conflicts; Actors in the conflict; Common steps to resolve conflicts.

Last session

Recounting yesterday video shows and lessons learnt

Day 3

First Session

Recap of yesterday

Second session

Institutional Capacity issues: Recounting a story from the Bible – the woman who Jesus rescued from an enraged mob that wanted to stone her

Lessons from the story – Learning to blame oneself before others. Reflection on the story in relation to the problems of MCIDP and at the community radio?

Group work: The three areas covered by MCIDP form groups. These areas are Ivingoni, Nthongoni and Masongaleni. They discuss the following: 1. What is the current state of your group and what are the desired changes? What activities can you do to improve MCIDP and your group? 2. What is the role of Radio Mang’elete in relation to your group?

Third Session

Groups’ Reports Shared points: Ownership of MCIDP and Radio Mang’elete

  • That all the groups agree that MCIDP belongs to the 33 original groups
  • That MCIDP, the umbrella body, owns Mang’elete Radio but each group has its own community project i.e a posho mill, merry-go-round, borehole etc.
  • The role and purpose of the community radio is to broadcast the development projects of MCIDP and the small groups. That is why the motto of the station is “Wasia wa Maendeleo” – The Voice of Development.

Fourth Session

History and performance of MCIDP and Radio Mang’elete: Plenary discussions Who owns MCIDP? Who owns the community radio? Who are the members of MCIDP and what are their roles? What is the current organizational structure of MCIDP? What role should we play to avoid past mistakes? Positive and negative aspects of MCIDP.

Organization Structure - Plenary reflection and guiding questions: Which organisational structure would be desirable and effective for MCIDP and Radio Mang’elete? If elections were to take place today, what minimum rules should guide us?

Foundation Documents: Power point presentation by the facilitator Highlights of MCIDP constitution and Radio Mang’elete Code of Conduct: Special areas in the constitution that were highlighted: Organizational structure; Elections and the constitution, Election rules and guidelines.

Ratification of the Foundation Documents: Plenary discussions

  • Convert the meeting to a special general assembly by special resolution
  • Adopt the constitution and its provisions for purposes of the elections
  • Ratify the election rules in accordance with the constitution

Members’ obligations:

  • Undue interference in the management of MCIDP and the community radio
  • Support each other
  • Attend regular meetings
  • Vote and be voted for
  • Receive project reports

Plenary discussions: Endorsement of the meeting to be the Special General Assembly of MCIDP

Fifth Session

Special General Assembly: Facilitated by an interim chairperson Proceedings - Preliminaries; Reasons for the Special General Assembly; Rules and Regulations; Highlights of the constitution( The name, Objectives, organizational structure, functions and duties of the various organs, meetings, membership, board of Trustees); Nomination rules of election to the board and hindrances to the nomination.

Hindrances to being elected - The one proposed to be elected should not 1) Have a criminal record in a court of law and 2) Has not been charged in a court of law for misappropriation of project funds.

  • Elections of MCIDP Board of Directors
  • Appointment of Mang’elete Community Radio Management Committee (RMC)

Steps and tasks for the next six months

  • Prepare the strategic plan document – Radio Management Committee and Board
  • Approve minutes of the Special General Assembly and sign after adding the
  • Bank mandates of the new Radio Management and Board- Board
  • File Change of names at the NGO Coordination Board – The Board
  • Make changes at the Bank: General MCIDP account and Radio account – The Board
  • Follow –up on fundraising – Board and secretariat
  • Revive groups and initiate a membership drive of new groups to MCIDP- Members
  • Carry out a strategic plan for each group –Board and secretariat

Last session:

Video shows

Day 4

Introductory session: Preliminaries Participants: Elected officials of MCIDP Board, Members of the Radio Management Committee and Staff at Mang’elete Community Radio. Debriefing about the three days organizational development workshop that had been conducted for MCIDP. Welcoming words from the newly elected chairperson of MCIDP

1st session: Introduction to Strategic planning: 1 hour of outdoor team –building exercises

2nd session: What is strategic planning? Plenary discussions Strategic planning is a reflection: Where I will want to be for the next 3,4 or 5 years? How was it five years ago? Where do we want MCIDP and Mang’elete Community Radio to be five years from now? How should they look like?

3rd session: The Future Role of MCIDP and Radio Mang’elete: Group work Two groups – One Staff and the other for the Board Board: To highlight the role and vision of MCIDP Staff of Radio Mang’elete: The role and vision of Radio Mang’elete

Reflection and guiding questions: Board: What is the nature of the umbrella group - MCIDP ? What does it do? What should it do?

Staff: What sort of a radio do you have? How different is it from the other radio stations heard in the community? Are there other radio stations in this community? What is the difference between them and yours? Why is your community radio important?

Groups report: Role Plays Radio Mang’elete staff: Acted a leaders’ meeting in the year 2013 MCIDP Board: Acted a future visit by the President and other leaders in the community.

Fourth Session:

Plenary discussions: Role Plays highlights: Ideas on the future roles of MCIDP and Mang’elete Community Radio

Tracing the resources of Radio Mang’elete: Questions and Answers - Plenary discussions Can you list the project’s equipment? Where is that equipment now? In use or not? How much money do you have in the project account? Any other resources?

Vision and Mission of MCIDP and Radio Mang’elete: Participants write on cards individual mission and vision they would like for MCIDP and Radio Mang’elete. Cards are then stuck on the walls for constant reflection.

Last session:

Organizational learning: Statement of support and experiences from the Programme Manager of World Vision Kenya. World Vision works as well in the community and collaborates with Radio Mang’elete in various areas, especially in the production of radio programmes of mutual interest.

Day 5

First session

Recap of yesterday: Key points from yesterday - Plenary discussions

Second session:

Steps of strategic planning: Facilitator’s inputs and plenary discussions: 1) External analysis; 2) Internal analysis; 3) Vision and Mission; 4) Goals, objectives and action plan; 5) Organizational structure and 6) Budget

External analysis: Political climate; Social changes in the country and community; Economic changes; Technological changes

Internal analysis: Financial resources; human resources; other resources; expertise and skills; alliances; technology; potential customers; the community needs and trends

Third Session:

SWOT Analysis, Radio Mang’elete future plans; Stakeholders analysis; Vision and Mission; MCIDP structure; Tasks ahead: Group Work: Two groups – Board and Staff


Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)

Strengths: • Public/stakeholder support; • Pool of relevant contacts; • Capital and human resources; • Trained staff and adaptive Board members • The first community radio in Kenya • Four years of transmission • An informed community • Development partners ENA & SIDA • Potential users schools, churches, business etc • Language shared by everybody
Weaknesses: • Lack of strategic direction; • Lack of managerial skills / competencies in the NGO world; • Unimplemented constitution • Negative attitude towards the project by some sections of the community, ownership problems • No effective communication with potential customers • No regular elections, meetings hence lack of information by members & community about project • Dependency syndrome, no proper sustainability mechanism • Lack of a clear and sound legal mandate • Lack of finances to support volunteers • Radio non-profit status makes it difficult to generate resources • Lack of exchange visits to other community radio projects
Opportunities: • Training of the Board members • Greater employment opportunities envisaged in the country • High numbers of unemployed people that can avail services and time to the station • Increased awareness of the value of information in development • Increased pressure to combat HIV/AIDS, corruption, loss of culture in the country • Expected economic recovery • Free primary education policy • Access to satellite, reduced cost of communication equipment and world space • Collaboration with Safaricom on the rental and maintenance of the mast.
Threats: • Likelihood of increase in taxes and broadcast license fees • Government not likely to honour its promises to the electorate • Costs of security being passed to the organisation amid increase in crime and social vices • Increase in rural urban migration • Lack of employment opportunities • Exclusion of stakeholders / token participation • Lack of commitment by community • Outside political interference • Lack of funds to pay the volunteer staff • Poor values and attitudes of communities toward NGOs. • Rapid turnover in technology leading to possibility of wrong investment • Centralised technology • Competition from other radio stations

Radio Mang’elete: Plans for the future

  • Open offices in several market centres to market the station and sell greeting cards
  • Erect a billboard at Mtito Andei town to advertise Radio
  • Acquire extra boosters
  • Improve the skills of the secretariat staff
  • Establish a marketing department
  • Set – up and sustain other projects for MCIDP
  • Intensify fundraising
  • Build alliances and networks

Stakeholders’ analysis

Group Needs
  • Economic empowerment
  • Equal opportunities
  • Organizational and institutional capacity building of the self-help groups
Girl Child
  • Access to education and equal opportunities as male counterparts
Youth groups
  • Employment
  • Stewardship
  • Access to learning opportunities
  • Access to advanced education
  • Organizational and institutional capacity building for groups
Families affected by HIV/ AIDs
  • Education and awareness
  • Home based care and support

Summary of the vision and mission written on the cards

Vision Mission
  • To serve as the best information centre in eastern province that meets the interests of all ages to enrich the quality of living standards in the entire community
  • To empower people economically, politically and socially
  • To be a tool (drug) of healing people’s needs (problems) in Kenya
  • To be the only community radio station/NGO committed to uplifting living standards, bringing equitable distribution of resources and liberating citizens from abuse and neglect of human rights through education, health and freedom to choose
  • Voice of community development in Ukambani and Kenya’s communities at large
  • To be a national broadcaster with many members, staff and resources for projects
  • A national NGO covering many parts of Kenya with many branches and varied activities for our own communities
  • To be the only station that benefits all in Kenya
  • To offer broadcast services nationwide
  • A self sustaining radio station with a variety of programmes and a professional management
  • Education, knowledge about family planning, sensitisation about diseases, self-reliance in Makueni in particular and Kenya in general
  • To be a rallying point for income generation, farming, education and health of the community
  • To offer truthful unbiased information to people to enable them create wealth, praise God, be self reliant, and educate women, men and children who missed a chance to attend formal schooling in local language
  • Lifting living standards of the local community through integrated job creation and non-formal education to ensure just standards of living in Makueni District
  • To disseminate useful information, uplift general living standards, empower people on matters of gender, economy, politics and society, help people participate in democratic practise, offer civic education for people to know their rights
  • Broadcast information, entertainment and education to our people, engage in income generation activities, training of people according to their needs, resource center for reading and learning in Makueni district
  • Reach schools, groups, youth, women and children and fundraise for activities of benefit to them
  • Provoke a change of attitudes in society and a people to people organisation
  • Coordinate individuals to form groups, inform and educate them through radio for better livelihood
  • Collect and disseminate information through radio in order to uplift the living standards of all ages in the community, be the information centre in eastern province to respond to the community’s needs
  • Educate the community on environmental, social, political and cultural issues in order to reduce poverty

New MCIDP Organisational Structure

Tasks Ahead

  • Indentify the vision and mission
  • Training of the Board of Directors on governance, roles, functions and responsibilities
  • Appointment of MCIDP Board of Trustees
  • Clarifications of the Role and functions of the Radio Management Committee
  • Preparation of the community radio institutional manuals, i.e. the human resources and financial manuals
  • Finalise the Strategic Plan

Closing session

  • Words of support and encouragement from the area catholic priest
  • Official closing of the workshop by the area Chief on behalf of the District Officer