ANDChemistry/Chemistry Assignments/Some questions on Atmosphere

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Q. Name the accessible components of the environment?
A. (a) Atmosphere (b) Hydrosphere (c) Lithosphere (d) Biosphere

Q.What is atmosphere?
A. Atmosphere is a gaseous envelope around the earth.

Q. What makes the atmosphere?
A. Atmosphere is a mixture of gases. In addition it also contains some solid and liquid particles in suspension

Q. Atmosphere saves us from the environment of outer space. How?
A. It saves us from the harmful radiations from the outer space and keeps the heat balance to save us.

Q. Some planets and moons do not have atmosphere. What keeps the atmosphere of earth from drifting into space?
A. The earth’s gravitational pull keeps the atmosphere of the earth intact while those planets which do not have gravity do not have atmosphere.

Q. How do you divide the atmosphere into various compounds? Name in ascending order.
A. Atmosphere can be divided into the following components

    (a) Troposphere (b) Stratosphere (c) Mesosphere (d) Thermosphere (e) Exosphere

Q. Which is the innermost layer of atmosphere?

Q. How much of the earth’s air is found in the atmosphere inner most layer (troposphere)
A. About 75%

Q. Today about 99% of the volume of clean , dry air in troposphere consist of how many

     many gems?


Q. Which are the two major gases of troposphere?
A. Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%)

Q. How do density and temperature vary in the troposphere?
A. Both density and temperature decrease with the attitude in troposphere.

Q. Stratosphere filters sun’s ultraviolet radiations and also ozone con not be formed in its

    Natural mechanism in troposphere. So how troposphere still contains ozone.

A.Burning of fossils , fuels and biomass releases compounds like nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds which react with sunlight to form ozone.

Q. In which layer of atmosphere we breathe? A. Troposphere.

Q. What kind of activities does occur in the troposphere? A. All human activities, variation in weather system as temperature, humidity,

    Precipitation, air pressure, winds and cloud cover etc. occur in the troposphere. 

Q. Does the tallest mountain of the planet (Mt. Everest) extend beyond the lowest the region of atmosphere ie.troposphere? A. No the Mt.Everest is only about 9 km high while next layer extends beyond about 11 km

Q. Sometimes in Troposphere , the temperature (instead of decreasing) may increase with attitude . Why does it happen? A. This kind of a situation is called temperature inversion. It happens when a layer of cold air is trapped by warmer upper air mass.

Q. How does temperature inversion affects? A. Since the pollutants in cold air cannot rise, they accumulate near the surface of the earth and this leads to discomfort, disease and even death.

Q. What is the minimum temperature of Troposphere? A. -56 *C

Q. Do any human built air craft found in troposphere? A. Some jet planes fly in upper layer of troposphere.

Q. Name the layer above the troposphere. What is its range? A. Stratosphere. It extends from 17 km to 50 km.

Q. Name the important chemical constituent of stratosphere? A. Ozone.

Q. Over which part of the world is ozone layer concentrated? A. At equator. At equator, since large number of molecules are formed here.

Q. What is the minimum temperature of stratosphere . A. -2C

Q. Why the temperature in stratosphere increases with increase in altitude opposite to the troposphere? A. Ozone present in the stratosphere absorbs ultra violet radiations and raises the temperature. As the concentration of ozone increases with altitude , the temperature also increases.

Q. What cools the atmosphere by blocking incoming solar radiation? A.Statosphere, dust and aerosols/clouds.

Q. Where as atmospheric ozone shield’s the earth from the sun” harmful rays , ground level ozone is a pollutant? A. Ground level ozone can cause respiratory problems in humans and can damage plants and plastics, rubbers etc.Ozone formed due to pollution at the earth’s surface can replenish the ozone layer.

Q. Why some pollutants entering stratosphere cause long term global hazards? A. In stratosphere, the molecules stay for a long time because of slow mixing in this region. I f some pollutants enter this layer; they stay for a long period and slowly descend to the troposphere causing long term global hazards.

Q. Which human built aircraft are found in the stratosphere region? A. Concorde and weather balloons are found in stratosphere. Most commercial air traffic occurs in the lower part of the stratosphere.

Q. Why the planes like to fly in the lower part of stratosphere? A. The stratosphere is stratified with warmer and lighter air : denser and cooler air below (Troposphere).Since the stratosphere is not turbulent ,so planes like to fly in this region.

Q. Whenever sufficiently energetic charged particles or radiant energy travel’s through gases, ionization occurs in which neutral atoms are converted to ions. Does this ionization occurs in atmosphere? A. Yes. Positive ions such as O2+ , o+ , no2+ and free electrons are found in the region called ionosphere. The ionization is caused mainly by solar radiations at X-ray and ultra violet radiations.

Q. How much deep ozone molecules are dispersed in atmosphere? A. About 30 km (20 miles)

Q. How do electrically charged species (ions) persist independtly? A. Due to rarified atmosphere in this zone , so long as ultraviolet radiations responsible for the formation of ions are available from the sun ,the ions persist. At night positive ions recombine with electrons.

Q. How is ionosphere of any significance ? A. The long distance propagation of radio signals , by reflection , occurs in this zone.

Q. How does the temperature vary in mesosphere which extends from 50 km to an altitude of 80 km ?

      A. The temperature decreases with increase in altitude.

Q. Why temperature decreases with increase in altitude ? A. Due to low level of ozone.

Q.What is tentative altitude of thermosphere ? A.From 80 km to 480 km.

Q.Why in thermosphere the temperature increases with increase in altitude ? A.The atmospheric gases absorb solar radiations ,split into atoms and undergo ionization. This increases temperature with increase in altitude.

Q.What is the maximum temperature of atmosphere and in which region it occurs? A. 1200* C In stratosphere.

Q.Which human built aircraft are found in thermosphere ? A. International space stations are set up in this layer.

Q. .Which human built aircraft are found in exosphere? A. Space shuttles are found in this region. Satellites orbit in this layer.

Q.What do pauses mean? A. Between the layers there are certain points where the temperature trends change. They are known as “Pauses”.

Q. What is Tropopause? A. The region between the Troposphere and the Stratosphere where reversal of temperature with altitude occurs i.e. from decreasing with altitude in Troposphere, it starts to rise with altitude in Stratosphere. This point of Temperature trend reversal is called Tropopause.

Q.What is Stratopause? A. Above the stratosphere about 50 Kms lies the stratopause, where the temperature reversal occurs.

Q.What is Mesopause? A. It is found between the Mesosphere and the Thermosphere at around 80 Kms.this the coldest point in the atmosphere.

Q. Which is the atmosphere’s second layer.? A. Stratosphere.

Q.Which layer of the atmosphere is known as global sunscreen? A. Stratosphere.

Q.What is Stratosphere? A. Stratosphere is atmosphere’s second layer which extends from about 11 to 50 kms. above earth’s surface.

Q. Why we do not find any clouds in Stratosphere? A. Very little air moves between the stratosphere and the Troposphere .So, stratosphere hardly contains any water. This means stratosphere clouds can be formed only if it so cold that the tiny amount of water present can condense to form ice crystals.

Q. What is the natural feature found in the Troposphere? A. Clouds and most weather occurs here.It contains 85% of the atmospheric mass.

Q. What is the natural feature found in the Stratosphere? A. Ozone prevents most ultraviolet radiations from reaching earth’s surface.

Q. What is the natural feature found in the mesosphere?

A. Sprites ( A type of lightning ) occurs here. Meteors ( Shooting Stars) burn up by entering this layer due to atmospheric friction. 

Q. What is the natural feature found in the Thermosphere? A. Auroas. ( Also known northern and southeren lights), the displays of light which shift in sheets across the skies occur in thermosphere.

Q. What is Exosphere? A. The transitional region between the the atmosphere and vaccum of inter planetary space is called Exosphere.

Q. Which are the chemical constituents found in Exposphere? A. Helium.

                       MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS.
 Q.1. Atmosphere is made up of:
       a) A mixture of gases.
       b) Gases, solid and liquid particles.
         c) Water vapour.
       d) Molecular Nitrogen and Molecular Oxygen.

Q.2. When seen from space, the atmosphere appears as:

       a)  A thin layer of dust particles on a curved horizon.
       b) A black layer of smoke on a curved horizon.
       c) A thin seam of green colour on a curved horizon.
       d) A thin seam of dark blue light on a curved horizon.

Q.3. The region of atmosphere immediately above the surface of the earth is :

       a) Lithosphere.
       b) Stratosphere.
       c) Troposphere.
       d) Biosphere.
    Q.4. We see clouds in this region of atmosphere:
        a) Troposphere.
        b) Stratosphere.
        c) Mesosphere.
        d) Thermosphere.

Q.5. Virtually all human activities occur in this part of earth’s atmosphere.

        a) Troposphere.
        b) Stratosphere.
        c) Mesosphere.
        d) Thermosphere

Q.6. Troposphere extends from earths surface upto about:

         a) 5 Kms.
         b) 6 Kms.
         c) 7 Kms.
         d) 10 Kms.

Q.7. Which of the following statements on temperature inversion is False?

         a) A layer of cold air is trapped by a warmer upper air mass.
         b) The pollutants in the lower air mass rise because they are in a    colder air mass.
         c) Temperature inversion is broken down by strong winds.
         d) Pollutants accumulate in lower air mass.

Q.8. Earth is protected from UV radiations by means of:

       a) Ozone layer.
       b) Nitrogen.
       c) Oxygen.
       d) Carbon dioxide.

Q.9. Ozone layer occurs in:

        a) Troposphere.
        b) Stratosphere.
        c) Mesosphere.
        d) Thermosphere

Q.10. Which gas of the atmosphere holds the UV rays ?

         a)  O2.
         b) O3.
         c)  N2
         d) CO2.

Q11. 90% of ozone in the upper atmosphere is called:

        a) Troposphere.
        b) Stratosphere.
        c) Mesosphere.
        d) Thermosphere

Q12. Most atmospheric ozone is concentrated in a layer of the atmosphere at the distance from earth’s surface (Kms): a)5 – 7 b)8 – 10. c)11 – 30. d)80 – 480.

     Q13. Most commercial air traffic occurs in the lower part of:
        a) Troposphere.
        b) Stratosphere.
        c) Mesosphere.
        d) Thermosphere

Q14. When traveling by air, your airplane flies through this zone of atmosphere: a)Higher part of the Troposphere not beyond. b)Mainly the lower part of the Stratosphere. c)Lower part of the Mesosphere. d)None of the above.

Q.15. Ozone molecules useful in blocking UV rays of the sun are dispersed at this altitude from the surface of earth:

         a) Only near the surface.
         b) From surface to 11 Kms.
         c) From 11 Kms to 30 Kms.
         d) From 31 to 50 Kms. 

Q.16.The temperature in the Stratosphere increases with height as compared to Troposphere because:

        a). Both contain Ozone but concentration of ozone is higher in   Stratosphere than in Troposphere
        b)  Sun is closer to stratosphere compared to troposphere.
        c) Clouds are present in Troposphere which cool the later.
        d) None of the above.


Q1.(b),Q2.(d),Q3.(c),Q4.(a),Q5.(a),Q6.(d),Q7.(b),Q8.(a), Q.9.(b),Q10.(b),Q11.(b),Q12.(c),Q13.(b),Q14.(b),Q15.(c), Q16.(a).